-Foundation is the structural element that is connected with the ground or soil and transfers load from the structure to the ground.
-Footings are known as foundation units or a structure that is constructed with concrete materials under the base of the wall which distributes the load of the superstructure to the surface or subsurface.
Foundations are of two types one is Shallow foundation and the other one is Deep foundation.
-A Shallow foundation is a type of foundation that transfers loads of the building to the surface.
-A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers loads of the building to the subsurface.
Shallow foundations include Combined footing foundations, pad footing, Stepped footing foundation, sloped footing foundation.
It is said when the positioning of the columns is close to each other. It is used where the load-bearing capacity of the soil is low. In easy words, if the columns are very near then we provide a single concrete bed.
This type of footing is mostly seen where the single or double-story buildings are constructed as well as you can see where the soil bearing capacity is Good.
Sloped Footing or Trapezoidal footing
This Footing is constructed carefully by providing an angle of 45 degrees. This is used when one size of the column is small and the other size of the column is large. So in this manner, the concrete cost and material are reduced. Compared to other footings, the sloped footing is economical because the quantity of concrete is less.
This footing consists of a series of steps in the proportion of one unit of horizontal dimension to two units of vertical dimension. Stepped footings are provided where the load-bearing capacity of the soil is less.
Piles are cylindrical in shape and are usually made of a strong material such as Concrete. Piles are inserted into the ground to transfer the loads from superstructures to the lower surface of the subsoil.